- Fasting hyperglycemia —Insulin resistance and or Type II diabetes
- High blood pressure
- Central obesity (also known as visceral, male-pattern or apple-shaped adiposity)
- Decreased HDL cholesterol
- High LDL cholesterol
- Elevated triglycerides
- Prothrombotic state: meaning increase fibrinogen levels which can cause clotting
- Pro-inflammatory state: often measure using a Cardiac C-Reactive Protein
This syndrome, which is characterized by high inflammatory states inside the body, leading to increase clotting potential, and/or arterial plaque formation.
What causes this syndrome? Much debate centers around discussion about the factors that lead to Metabolic Syndrome. What is known is that the central body fat accumulation is a sign of visceral fat deposition. This visceral fat is fat the lays as an apron on top of the organs inside the abdomen. This fat is different from that fat that we can pinch in the abdominal wall area. Visceral fat acts to promote inflammation, as well as to secrete leptin. Leptin is a hormone in the body that communicates with the hypothalamus in the brain. More on this later.
What leads to Metabolic Syndrome is multi-factorial. Usually it starts with a diet that supports the development of insulin resistance. High glycemic carbohydrate diets promote insulin resistance. Insulin resistance alters the way a body metabolizes calories and the manner in which those calories are stored. Visceral fat develops and acts as a promoter of inflammation. Together with diets that are higher in trans-fats, the inflammatory environment is supercharged and goes into a viscous cycle. Combine all this with a declining hormone environment and the end result is disease states that lead to increase risk for Stroke, heart attacks, and cancers.